一文看懂!美国硬木10大出口树种是哪些?

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美国硬木出口10大主要树种介绍

编译/许美琪  责编/高单单

前言:

许美琪教授长期观察和研究家具业,对美国硬木也有深度了解,近日更亲自编译整理了美国硬木出口10大主要树种介绍,为行业提供宝贵参考资料。为求准确严谨,特别附上了英文原文,也更方便专业名词的对照查找。现介绍给今日家具的读者们,希望有所帮助,同时感谢许美琪教授的辛勤付出!

1、山核桃木

Hickory lumber derives from seven commercially important species in two species groups, the True Hickories and the Pecan Hickories.  Wood properties are very similar between the two groups and the lumber is generally marketed together as “Hickory” or “Pecan/Hickory.”  The largest concentrations of Hickory timber are in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee, though it grows across the Eastern hardwood range.  Hickory accounts for roughly 5% of U.S. hardwood sawtimber in the Eastern United States and 3% of U.S. hardwood lumber production.

Hickory is the heaviest of American hardwoods, yet it can be sanded to a nice finish and is above-average in most other working properties.  Hickory has historically been a leading wood in tool handles due to its exceptional strength and shock resistance.  Hickory sapwood is white and frequently tinged with pown streaks.  Hickory’s natural color variations have made it a favorite of consumers looking for a rustic look in flooring, furniture and cabinets.  Since Hickory is very prone to stain, production tends to decline during warm weather.

山核桃木锯材产自2个树种群即真山核桃和美洲山核桃的7个商用重要树种。这2个树种群的木材性质十分相似,在市场上,它们的锯材一般也统称之为“山核桃”或“美洲山核桃/山核桃”。山核桃木材最集中的产地是伊利诺斯州、印第安纳州、俄亥俄州、肯塔基州和田纳西州,不过它们横跨东部硬木产区生长。山核桃木约占美国东部各州各硬木锯材的5%和美国硬木锯材产量的3%。

山核桃木是最重的美国硬木,但是它仍能被砂光成漂亮的表面,它的工作性能高于许多其它树种木材工作性能的平均值。由于山核桃木具有特别高的强度和耐震性,它历来是工具柄的主要用材。山核桃木的边材呈白色,常常带有棕色的条纹。山核桃木天然的色差使其受到消费者的青睐,它能使地板、家具和厨柜拥有粗犷的外观。因为山核桃木极易色变,在天气较暖的季节,产量趋于下降。

2、软枫木

Lumber from Red Maple, Silver Maple, and Bigleaf Maple are all sold as “Soft Maple.”  Soft Maple is 50% more abundant than Hard Maple and grows across a greater range, extending south to the Gulf Coast states.  Soft Maple was traditionally a less-expensive substitute for Hard Maple and Cherry in furniture, cabinets, moulding and musical instruments.  Over the last decade, however, Soft Maple has developed significant demand of its own.  Soft Maple is less prone to supply shortages and price swings than Hard Maple.  In addition, steady growth in consumer demand for painted and darkly stained finishes in cabinets and furniture has eliminated much of the color advantage Hard Maple once held over Soft Maple.

从红枫木、银枫木和大叶枫木所得到的锯材在销售时统称为“软枫木”。软枫木的贮量比上硬枫木多出50%,生长的地区范围也较广,向南延伸至海湾各州。在家具、厨柜建筑木线条和乐器的制作中,软枫木历来用来做硬枫木和樱桃木的廉价代用品。但是过去20年里,软枫木本身已经拥有了很大的需求。软枫木比硬枫木更不容易发生供应不足和价格波动。此外,消费者对油漆和着深色涂饰的家具和厨柜的需求稳步上升也抵消了硬枫木一度长于软枫木色泽的优势。

3、胡桃木

American Black Walnut grows throughout the eastern United States, but is most highly concentrated in Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.  It is one of only a few North American hardwood species occasionally grown in plantations due to its high value.  Despite its wide growing region, Walnut composes less than 1% of the growing stock in the Eastern U.S.  Walnut lumber is highly prized for its rich, dark color.  It is heavy, hard, and decay resistant, yet easily worked.  It is often steamed before drying to minimize the stark contrast between the dark-colored heartwood and the light-colored sapwood.  Walnut is used for furniture, cabinets, interior paneling, flooring and specialty items like gun stocks and plaques.

美洲黑胡桃木生长遍及美国东部,但是大多数密集生长在爱荷华州、密苏里州、伊利诺斯州、印第安纳州和俄亥俄州。它是因其高价值偶尔用人工种植的少数北美硬木树种之一。尽管胡桃木的生长地区广泛,它占美国东部锯材的立木蓄积量还不足1%。胡桃木锯材因其色泽丰厚深沉而颇受青睐。胡桃木重、硬、耐磨,但仍易被加工。在干燥前常先汽蒸,以减少深色心材与淡色边材之间的明显色差。胡桃木用来制作家具、厨柜、室内镶板和地板,并专门用来制作如枪柄和饰板等货品。

4、白橡木

White Oak comprises 17% of hardwood sawtimber in the Eastern United States.  The wood is dense, heavy, hard and relatively water-resistant, lending to its traditional uses for residential and truck trailer flooring, and whiskey and wine barrels.  It is also a favored species for furniture, doors, mouldings and paneling.  White Oak’s figure is generally less pronounced than Red Oak, and its color is generally lighter.

白橡木占到美国东部硬木锯材的17%。这种木材密实、重、硬和相对防水,使其历来用于住宅地板和卡车拖车厢底板、威士忌酒和红酒的酒桶。它也是用于制作家具、木门、建筑木线条和镶板的上好材料。白橡木的花纹一般不如红橡木那么明显,颜色一般也较淡。

5、白蜡木

Six species of Ash are harvested for lumber across the eastern half of the U.S. and into Canada.  Historically, Ash has accounted for 5% of hardwood growing stock on timberlands in the Eastern U.S., but less than 3% of U.S. hardwood lumber production.  Ash is an open-grained species like Red Oak and White Oak, but generally has a less-pronounced grain pattern than the Oaks.  Ash is often sorted for color and sold as “white Ash” or “pown Ash.”  It is a strong, hard and heavy wood, and has traditionally been used for furniture, flooring, millwork, tool handles and baseball bats.  In recent years, Ash has been increasingly used in the manufacture of thermally modified wood for exterior applications, particularly in Europe.

Ash lumber markets have been severely disrupted over the last four years by the Emerald Ash Borer, an introduced pest from Asia that has killed millions of Ash trees throughout the Eastern U.S. and Canada.  As the infestation spread, timberland owners began aggressively cutting their Ash timber to salvage as much value as possible.  At the same time, European agencies enacted protective measures to prevent Ash lumber imports from carrying the insect into European forests.  The excess production and restricted exports caused Ash prices to collapse beginning in June of 2015.  Ash prices recovered in 2018, but have since cooled again.  Still, compared to the 2016 lows, current Ash prices are $120/MBF higher for KD 4/4 FAS/1F, $190 higher for #1 Common and $160 higher for #2 Common.

在美国东半部至加拿大,有6个白蜡木树种木材用于制作锯材。历来,白蜡木占美国东部林地的硬木立木蓄积量的5%,但是占美国硬木锯材产量却不到3%。与红橡木和白橡木一样,白蜡木是粗疏纹理的树种木材,但是一般不如橡木的纹理明显。白蜡木常以颜色分类,在销售时称之为“白色白蜡木”或“褐色白蜡木”。它是一种强度高、硬和重的木材,历来用于制作家具、地板、建筑木线材、工具柄和棒球球棒。近年来,白蜡木越来越多地用作热改性材,用于室外场合,特别是在欧洲。

在过去的4年里,白蜡木锯材市场深受祖母绿钻虫害的困扰,它是源自于亚洲的一种虫害,在整个美国东部和加拿大造成了成百万棵的白蜡木树死亡,由于虫害的蔓延,林地业主开始急于砍伐他们的白蜡木树,以尽可能地挽回他们的价值。同时,欧洲机构也采取保护措施来阻止白蜡木锯材的进口,以避免把虫害引进欧洲的森林。过量的生产和出口受限使白蜡木的价格在2015年6月开始崩盘。2018年,白蜡木的价格复苏,但此后又下跌了。不过,相比2016年的低位,窑干4/4 英寸厚FAS单面白蜡木的现价每千板英尺已上涨了120美元、普1级的现价每千板英尺已上涨了190美元、普2级的现价每千板英尺已上涨了160美元。

6、赤桦木

Western Red Alder is the most commercially significant hardwood species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Canadian West.  Most Alder forests are located west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges, from southern Alaska to southern California, with the heaviest concentrations in northern Oregon, Washington and pitish Columbia.  Alder comprises nearly 17% of hardwood growing stock on timberland in the Western U.S. but less than 2% of total U.S. hardwood growing stock.  Unlike most eastern hardwood species in North America, Alder production is concentrated among a relatively small number of companies, several of which have developed proprietary grades that are hypids of standard NHLA grades.

The heartwood and sapwood of Alder are virtually indistinguishable and range in color from light tan to reddish-pown.  As a relatively soft hardwood, Alder is easy to turn, sand and finish.  Alder’s straight, tight grain makes it a popular substitute for Cherry and Maple, particularly in darkly stained or painted applications, though it is no longer just a substitute wood.  Alder is widely used in kitchen cabinets, especially in the western U.S.  Sizeable volumes of Alder also go into furniture, doors and interior moulding.  “Rustic” grades of Alder are especially popular for mountain cabins and resorts.

西部红赤桦是美国太平洋西北沿岸和加拿大西部最具商业价值的硬木树种。大多数赤桦木森林位于内华达和卡斯达山脉沿南阿拉斯加到南加利福尼亚一线,赤桦木森林最多集中在俄勒冈州的北部、华盛顿州和(加拿大)不列颠哥伦比亚。赤桦木约占美国西部林地立木蓄积量的17%,但是不到美国全部硬木立木蓄积量的2%。与北美大多数东部硬木树种不同,赤桦木的生产集中在相对少数的企业中,其中的几个公司已建立了业主等级标准,它们是与全美硬木板材协会(NHLA)等级标准混同的标准。

赤桦木的心材和边材实际上是难以区分的,它的颜色从淡黄褐色至淡红褐色变化。作为一种相对质软的硬木,赤桦木易被车削、砂光和涂饰。赤桦木纹理通直、紧密,这使它被普遍用来作为樱桃木和枫木的替代用材,特别是在深色着色和油漆的应用场合,不过它不再只是一种替代用材了。赤桦木广泛用于制作厨柜,特别是在美国西部地区。赤桦木有相当数量用于制作家具、木门和室内建筑木线条。在建造山区的木屋和度假村中,“乡村级”的赤桦木特别用得普遍。

7、鹅掌楸木

Poplar, or Tulipwood, is among the most abundant U.S. hardwood species.  It grows throughout the Appalachian and Southern regions, with the heaviest concentrations along the Appalachian Mountain range from northern Georgia through southeastern Pennsylvania.  It is a fast-growing, sun-loving species that regenerates naturally and accounts for almost 10% of the standing hardwood sawtimber volume in the eastern U.S.  Poplar lumber typically has a yellow or greenish color, and is often used in applications where the wood will be darkly stained or painted.  Since Poplar trees tend to grow tall and straight, Poplar lumber is more readily available in longer lengths than many other species. Its light weight, workability, and low cost compared to other tight-grained woods make it a favorite for moulding, millwork, furniture and window blind producers. Poplar is also a common species for veneered panels, and veneer plants often compete aggressively with sawmills for Poplar logs.

鹅掌楸木或称美国白杨木,它是美国硬木中最丰富的树种木材。它生长在整个阿巴拉契亚地区和南部地区,其中最多集中于沿着佐治亚北部到宾夕法尼亚东南部的阿巴拉契亚山脉。它是一个速生、喜阳的树种,天然再生,几乎占到美国东部硬木锯材蓄积量的10%。鹅掌楸锯材一般呈黄色或淡绿色,常用于着深色或油漆的应用场合。因为鹅掌楸树木长得高大通直,通常更容易购到比其它树种锯材长度更长的鹅掌楸木锯材。相比其它细纹理的木材,它质量较轻、加工性好,价格较低,这使它更适于用来制作装饰线条、建筑木线条、家具和百叶窗。鹅掌楸木也常用来制作薄木贴面镶板,单板工厂常与锯木厂竞相采购鹅掌楸原木。

8、樱桃木

American Cherry grows throughout the eastern United States, though roughly half of all Cherry sawtimber is concentrated in the states of Pennsylvania and New York.  Significant Cherry volumes also grow in Ohio, West Virginia, Michigan and Wisconsin.  Cherry accounts for about 2% of growing stock on U.S. timberlands and about 3% of U.S. hardwood lumber production.  Historically, Cherry was one of the most prized wood species in North America for high-end furniture, cabinetry, millwork and paneling.  The rich pinkish color of Cherry heartwood darkens with age.  The widespread adoption of color sorting in the market has worked to minimize much of the color and quality variations within Cherry’s natural range, though regional price differences remain.  Cherry lumber is widely available in a variety of color specifications, such as 90/50 Red, which specifies that 90% of one face and 50% of the other will be of the desirable red heartwood.

美国樱桃木在整个美国东部都有生长,不过全部樱桃木锯材中约有一半集中在宾夕法尼亚州和纽约州。俄亥俄州、西弗吉尼亚州、密歇根州和威斯康星州也生长有大量的樱桃木。樱桃木占美国林地的立木蓄积量约2%,占美国硬木锯材产量约3%。樱桃木历来是制作北美高端家具、厨柜、建筑木线条和镶板的最珍贵的树种木材。樱桃木心材随树龄加大而显出丰满的粉红色。在市场上,普遍采用色泽分类以最大限度地减少因产地不同而出现的大部分的颜色和品质的差异,不过地区性的差价仍然存在。可以采购到各种色泽规格的樱桃木锯材,诸如90/50红,它指的是一面有90%是所要求的粉红色的心材,另一面则有50%是所要求的粉红色的心材。

9、红橡木

Red Oak is the most abundant hardwood in all but a few Eastern states.  It is also the most traditional American hardwood, and has been favored for generations for furniture, cabinetry, flooring and architectural millwork.  Red Oak is an open-grained wood like White Oak and Ash, but often with more pronounced grain patterns.  It is hard, heavy and dense, making it suitable for applications requiring strength and dent-resistance.  It sands and finishes well, and can be easily stained.

红橡木是资源最丰富的硬木,除了东部少数几个州生长得较少外。它也是最传统的美国硬木,许多代人一直喜欢用它来制作家具、橱柜、地板和建筑装饰木制品。与白橡木和白蜡木一样,红橡木是粗疏纹理的木材,但是它的花纹图案更加明显。它硬、重和密实,这使它更适宜用于对强度和耐磨有所要求的场合。它易砂光和涂饰,也能容易着色。

10、硬枫木

Hard Maple—also known as Sugar Maple or Black Maple—comprises 7% of hardwood growing stock in the eastern United States, with the majority found in Michigan, Wisconsin, New York, Pennsylvania, Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont.  Hard Maple is also a dominant hardwood species in eastern Canada.  Hard Maple is a tight-grained species with white sapwood.  It is one of the heaviest and hardest North American hardwood species, with excellent dent resistance, yet it can also be easily sanded and finished.  Most producers now color-sort Hard Maple to maximize sapwood content.

The cabinet industry has been the largest North American end-use market for Hard Maple over the last decade, as consumers favored its pight, clean appearance.  In recent years, however, as consumer preference has shifted towards painted and darkly stained cabinets, demand has increased for pown Hard Maple, Unselected Hard Maple, and even Soft Maple, which have historically been less-expensive alternative to Sap/Btr or #1&2 White Hard Maple.

延伸阅读:美国硬木出口:到中国集装箱紧缺!红橡、白橡迎来上升?

硬枫木——也称之为糖槭或黑糖槭——占美国东部硬木立木蓄积量的7%,其中主要生长在密歇根州、威斯康星州、纽约州、宾夕法尼亚州、缅因州、新罕布什尔州和弗蒙特州。硬枫木也是加拿大东部的一个主要硬木树种。硬枫木是一种带有白色边材的紧密纹理的木材。它是北美硬木树种中最重和最硬的木材之一,有极佳的耐磨性,但它又能容易地被砂光和涂饰。大多数生产商现在按照颜色来对硬枫木材分类,以最大化地得到边材。

在过去的10年里,厨柜业一直是硬枫木的最大北美终端用户,因为消费者青睐它光亮洁净的外观。但最近几年,因为消费者的偏好已转向油漆和深色着色的厨柜,对棕色的硬枫木、未经挑选的硬枫木,甚至也对软枫木的需求增加,它们历来是边材级/较好级或普1级和普2级白色硬枫木的较为便宜的替代用材。

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